By David Torrance
Used to be it easily a victory for worry over hope?
How did the higher jointly crusade come so with reference to wasting it?
How did the sure crusade come so with regards to profitable it?
What can the folk of Scotland – and different aspirant international locations – examine from this seismic democratic occasion? Scotland’s independence referendum on 18 September 2014 was once the main major poll in Scotland’s heritage. The a hundred days as much as 18 September used to be the legitimate crusade interval and the world’s media was once gazing. David Torrance was once there all through, in entrance of the cameras, at the radio, within the newspapers, on the debates and gatherings, aware of the various behind-the-scenes manoeuvrings.
A passionate federalist at center, defined disparagingly by way of the outgoing First Minister as ‘Tory-leaning’, Torrance made a valiant try and stay ‘professionally neutral’ all through. His statement and research because the crusade went via its many twists and turns used to be continually insightful, if now not consistently popular.
'Reading this diary again through the enhancing strategy it used to be transparent that, like (Nate) Silver (the US polling guru whose view used to be that the certain crusade had nearly no probability of victory), I bought loads of issues flawed (including the most likely margin of victory) but additionally many stuff commonly right. at the very least i will plead, as reporters usually do, that i used to be most likely correct on the time.'
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Extra info for 100 Days of Hope and Fear: How Scotland's Referendum was Lost and Won
The shogun had jurisdiction over the highways even if they passed through a domain; Constantine Vaporis, Breaking Barriers, pp. 28-31. " 18 Mercantilism in a Japanese domain general costs of living and traveling outside their domains. An example from Tosa in the 1690s can illuminate the scale. 5 to 3 thousand people and their baggage the 500-mile trek over mountain, sea, and coastal highway between home and the great metropolis of Edo. 39 On that journey, additional porters, innkeepers, shippers, and food suppliers had to be paid.
At the time of Nobunaga's assassination by a dissatisfied vassal in 1582, Hideyoshi was daimyo of Himeji domain and was serving as general of Nobunaga's western army. Hideyoshi led this army to defeat the assassin and take the banner of leadership himself. Hideyoshi's armies spread throughout Japan, and he defeated the last major lord in 1590, achieving hegemony over the islands. As Mary Berry argues, Hideyoshi is notable not merely for transforming his vassals into lords of domains, but also for frequently allowing defeated enemy lords to retain rule of their realms (or a depleted portion thereof) in return for their recognition of his suzerainty.
With these bills of credit, they paid many of their expenses to retailers in Edo, who then used the bills toward the purchase of new wares from Osaka. The mechanism of credit between Osaka and Edo left large sums of interestfree tax money in the hands of Osaka exchange merchants for weeks or months at a time, which they used in their role as moneylenders. 45 Merchants who sold goods for the lords developed into powerful creditors who invested in private enterprises and goods throughout Japan. The Japanese islands became economically integrated around Osaka, which became known as the "Kitchen of the Realm," into which raw materials flowed and out of which finished products and orders for more goods were sent.