By G. Martin
Focusing on person political thinkers and starting with indigenous African political notion, the ebook successively examines African nationalism, African socialism, populism and Marxism, Africanism and pan-Africanism, concluding with modern views on democracy, improvement and the African state.
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Ibn Khaldûn introduces a fundamental distinction here between umran badawi (nomadic, desert, or rural life) and umran hadari (sedentary, urban life). In the author’s view of historical evolution, the first (or “primitive”) stage gradually and naturally leads to the last (and more advanced) stage of social and political development. ” As N. J. ”43 ‘Asabîyah arises in simple societies where economies of necessity produce an ethos of community. Political institutions are rudimentary: the leadership of the most able and respected.
Thus Islam became an agent of social mobilization and a powerful factor of social integration, which undermined the fragile equilibrium and coexistence of the Muslim faith with indigenous African beliefs and traditions. In spite of its derogatory description of indigenous African religion, the following statement by J. Spencer Trimingham perfectly captures the essence of this dilemma: “The transformation which took place in the relations of Islamic and pagan [sic] societies constituted a religious, political, and social revolution.
Diop, Cheikh Anta, Precolonial Black Africa (Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 1987). Fyle, C. Magbaily, Introduction to the History of African Civilization; Volume I: PreColonial Africa (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1999). , Africans and Their History, 2nd revised edition (New York: Meridian/Penguin Books, 1998). Shinnie, Margaret, Ancient African Kingdoms (London: Edward Arnold, 1965). 4 Chapter 2 The In flue n c e o f I sl amic Va lue s a n d I d ea s on I nd ige n o us A fr i ca n Politic al Sys t e m s a n d I n s t itution s f ro m t h e Te n t h to th e N i n e te e n t h C e n tury Through the nineteenth-century revolution Islam was transformed into a social and political force which ushered in a new age because its relationship to indigenous civilizations was changed .