Analog and Digital Signals and Systems by R. K. Rao Yarlagadda

By R. K. Rao Yarlagadda

This is a complete and cohesive presentation of analog and electronic sign processing and filtering for electric engineers. the writer covers the main recommendations of analog and electronic indications, generalized Fourier sequence approximations with sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal services, and analog convolutions and correlations. indications and linear approach interactions, procedure balance and bandwidths also are mentioned. research and layout of analog low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band removing filters, and hold up line filters are mentioned utilizing operational amplifiers. difficulties linked to nonlinear structures are included.

Key gains include:

  • Discrete-time Fourier transforms
  • SINC services to demonstrate the generalized Fourier sequence concepts
  • One constant notation scheme used during the publication

The writer addresses the most suggestions of electronic signs, convolution, correlation and deconvolution. electronic filter out designs utilizing finite and endless established impulse responses are offered in addition to their filter out buildings. additionally incorporated is assurance of easy analog communications together with AM, FM and multiplexing in addition to basic electronic modulations. instance difficulties are offered intimately through the publication and over four hundred finish of bankruptcy difficulties are supplied for additional study.

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Extra info for Analog and Digital Signals and Systems

Example text

4) with a ¼ 3 and t0 ¼ À2, we have ! tþ2 ; vðtÞ ¼xðt À t0 Þ ¼ P 2 ! 5), we have Fig. 6 Products of Even and Odd Functions ! 3t ; gðtÞ ¼xðatÞ ¼ P 2 Let xe ðtÞ and ye ðtÞ be two even functions and x0 ðtÞ and y0 ðtÞ be two odd functions and arbitrary. Some general comments can be made about their products. t0 2 yðtÞ ¼gðt À Þ ¼ gðt þ Þ a 3 ! 3ðt þ ð2=3ÞÞ t þ ð2=3Þ ¼P : ¼P 2 2=3 xe ðÀtÞye ðÀtÞ ¼ xe ðtÞye ðtÞ; even function: It is a rectangular pulse of unit amplitude centered at t ¼ Àð2=3Þ with width (2/3).

Solution: Without loosing any generality, assume T ¼ ð2p=o0 Þ. 2p 2p xðt þ Þ ¼ C1 cosðno0 ðt þ Þ þ y1 Þ o0 o0 2p þ C2 cosðko0 ðt þ Þ þ y2 Þ o0 ¼ C1 cosðno0 t þ y1 Þ þ C2 cosðko0 t þ y2 Þ: This indicates that xðtÞ ¼ xT ðtÞ is periodic for both cases with period T ¼ ðo0 =2pÞ. a: P ¼ 1 T0 Z jxT ðtÞj2 dt ¼ 1 T0 T0 Z ½C1 cosðo1 t þ y1 Þ T0 2 þC2 cosðo2 t þ y2 ފ dt Z 1 ½C21 þ C22 þ C21 cosð2ðo1 t þ y1 ÞÞ ¼ 2T0 T0 þC22 cosð2ðo2 t þ y2 ފdt Z 1 ½cosððo1 þ o2 Þt þ ðy1 þ y2 ÞÞ þ C1 C2 T0 xT ðtÞ ¼ C1 cosðo0 t þ y1 Þ þ C2 cosðo0 t þ y1 Æ ðp=2ÞÞ ¼ C1 cosðo0 t þ y1 Þ Ç C2 sinðo0 t þ y1 Þ: & Notes: Consider xðtÞ ¼ C cosðo0 t þ yÞ ¼ C cosðyÞ cosðo0 tÞ À C sinðyÞ sinðo0 tÞ ¼ a cosðo0 tÞ þ b sinðo0 tÞ; pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi a ¼ C cosðyÞ; b ¼ ÀC sinðyÞ; C ¼ a2 þ b2 ; y ¼ tanÀ1 ðÀb=aÞ: (1:5:26) One should be careful in computing y as tanÀ1 ðÀb=aÞ 6¼ tanÀ1 ðb= À aÞ; tanÀ1 ðÀb= À aÞ 6¼ tanÀ1 ðb=aÞ: & Exponentially varying sinusoids: An example of such a function is xðtÞ ¼ AeÀat cosðo0 t þ yÞ: (1:5:27) It becomes unbounded for at50.

Combining them, it follows that À1 0 for À 1 t xðtÞ > 0 for À 15t5 À 1 and 5 1 t51 ! yðtÞ ¼ 1; t5 À 1; t > 1: ! 1 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi dy 2 y þ a2  1 : ¼ fðÀaÞ j2aj Z1 0 for À1 Solution: Since xðtÞ that X tn If a signal xðtÞ is said to be absolutely integrable, then 1 dxðtÞ dðt À tn Þ; x0 ðtn Þ ¼ jt¼tn dt jx0 ðtn Þj Area½jxðtÞjŠ ¼ (1:4:40) & Z1 jxðtÞjdt51: (1:5:2) À1 x(t) y(t) t Fig. , a finite energy signal satisfies Z1 2 (1:5:3) Area½jxðtÞj Š ¼ jxðtÞj2 dt51: Consider a resistor of value R O. Ohm’s law states that the voltage, vðtÞ; across this resistor is equal to R times the current iðtÞ passing through the resistor and vðtÞ ¼ RiðtÞ.

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