Antidiabetic Agents: Recent Advances in their Molecular and by H.P.T. Ammon, H.U. Häring, M. Kellerer, H. Laube, L.

By H.P.T. Ammon, H.U. Häring, M. Kellerer, H. Laube, L. Mosthaf, E.J. Verspohl and M.A. Wahl (Eds.)

Quantity 27, the 1st thematic quantity within the sequence, presents an summary of current wisdom in regards to the pharmacological and scientific features of antidiabetic medicinal drugs. It goals to stimulate additional attention of attainable techniques within the improvement of recent antidiabetic medications.

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1991b). , 1991b). It is believed that this association leads to activation of PI 3-kinase which results in phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol molecules (Cantley et al. , 1991). , 1993). Although some functional properties of IRS-1 have been defined, we can presume that not all of the functions of IRS-1 have been discovered. The role of IRS-1 is probably not restricted to its function as a docking protein for PI 3-kinase; it might rather play a multifunctional role as a signalling element for growth-promoting and metabolic effects.

There is increasing evidence that the conformational change in the a-subunit is transduced to the/3-subunit and modulates the tyrosine kinase activity of the/3-subunit. The coupling of the c~-subunit to the extracellular part of the/3-subunit occurs through disulphide bonds. , 1988), it seems possible that the insulin-binding-induced conformational change in the c~-subunit is transduced to the/3-subunit and releases the catalytic domain from inhibition. Several findings support this interpretation.

Model of the signal flow through the insulin receptor. Tyr-ll50 or Tyr-ll51 are phosphorylated first, generating a diphosphotyrosyl region. , 1990). Phosphorylation of the C-terminus does not activate the intrinsic tyrosine kinase. Moreover, diphosphorylation of the regulatory region is poorly associated with activation of the kinase. , 1988b) and probably reflecting a further allosteric change (Fig. 9). , 1988b). Furthermore, it is now clear that transphosphorylation of receptor/3-subunits can also occur (Schlessinger, 1988).

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