By D. H. Griffiths and R. F. King (Auth.)
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Extra info for Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers. The Elements of Geophysical Prospecting
They can usually be carried out by the reflection method, since the negligible attenuation of seismic waves in water means that higher frequency sources can be used than is possible on land. 2) limits the sub-bottom penetration, and a compromise must be adopted between increasing the source frequency (shortening the wavelength) to improve layer resolution and decreasing it to achieve deeper penetration. Some common sources for work on this scale are the "sparker" (condenser discharged across underwater spark gap, frequency/ ~ 100-400 Hz), the "boomer" (metal disc spring- 36 Applied Geophysics for Geologists and Engineers mounted against a coil from which it is sharply repelled by the passage of an impulsive current, / ~ 2 0 0 Hz) and the magnetostrictive transducer also used in echo-sounders and sonar (f~ 5 kHz for useful penetration).
This is the method commonly used for estimating velocities in reflection profiling, having the advantage of being only a variation in the stacking process which is an integral part of the CDP technique. Older methods such as plotting t2 against x2 or t against At are useful for individual seismograms but cannot be incorporated into a continuous production routine. 13) so that the velocity for optimum stack of the reflection or stacking velocity is approximately the RMS velocity of the overburden.
For a depth of the order of 10 m, we require a line length of about 100 m and a weight-drop source may be adequate in quiet conditions.