By S. Wright
A complete complex textbook, overlaying not just language studying imposed by means of fiscal or political agendas but additionally language offerings entered into freely for purposes of social mobility, monetary virtue or team id. the 1st a part of the ebook reports the improvement and position of normal languages within the building of nationwide groups and identities. the second one half examines the linguistic lodging of teams in touch, significant lingua francas and the case of 'International English'. The 3rd part explores reactions to nationalism and globalization, with a few consciousness to language rights. The ebook additional offers with methodological difficulties of operating during this interdisciplinary quarter, and gives specified illustrations from a number of nations and communities.
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Additional info for Language Policy and Language Planning: From Nationalism to Globalisation
Even the lowliest priest mastered enough words of the great sacred language to officiate at religious services, although there is anecdotal evidence that some parish priests memorised the liturgy and recited it without full understanding of what they were saying (Nicholas 1999). Despite individual failings, literacy and scholarship were the province of the clergy. It was the 'information caste' 24 Language Policy and Language Planning (Rietbergen 1998). Those in western Europe who could read and write would have been educated by monks or priests through the medium of Latin.
Protestantism, industrialisation and influence from the German world were part of the Czech heritage; the Slovaks were a far more pastoral group, whose Catholicism had been undiluted and who had long been a cultural and political backwater of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The only item on the list of criteria for the ethnic nation that they really had in common was the possession of languages very close on the Slavic dialect continuum. 41 It also explains why Slovenians, Croats, Serbs, Macedonians, Montenegrins and others were combined in Yugoslavia.
Hochdeutsch acted as an internal unifier but not as a boundary setter. A close study of German unification illustrates that, for the ethnic nation state as for the state nation, the boundaries of group identity are ultimately indeterminate until they are located in institutions (Schlesinger 1986), and so, despite the rhetoric, until the political elite begins the process of nation building, the ethnic nation is a fiction to a large extent. The process of Italian unification which was happening concurrently and with much of the same philosophical underpinning confirms this.